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Extreme Habitats
Solar Radiation
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) would have been vital for the development of photosynthetic microbial communities on early Earth and early Mars 3.5 billion years ago. [...]

Extreme Temperature
The temperature range for microbes in cold surface habitats can be narrow, such as for psychrophiles that function only below ~20°C. [...]

Subsurface
Metabolism at low redox potential is a feature of anaerobic deep subsurface microbial communities on Earth and potentially on early and even present-day Mars. [...]

Acid Tolerance
Acid-tolerance is another survival factor shown by various groups of primitive microbes of relevance to early Earth and potential relevance to Hesperian Mars. [...]

Salt Tolerance
Hypersalinity per se as shown by the Antarctic archaebacter Halobacterium lacusprofundi from Deep Lake may be crucial for survival in hypothetical supercooled brine aquifers emerging onto the surface of Mars. [...]

Biofilms
Photosynthetic microbial biofilms such as cyanobacterial stromatolitic mats, result in highly concentrated biomolecular layers, which are tightly constrained by the penetration of PAR These accumulate 2-3 metres thick in Antarctic Dry Valley lakes. [...]

Fossil Biochemicals
Microbial communities themselves may not survive, but their fossil biochemicals may be preserved in frozen regolith. [...]